DOI: 10.18129/B9.bioc.TOAST  

This package is for version 3.17 of Bioconductor; for the stable, up-to-date release version, see TOAST.

Tools for the analysis of heterogeneous tissues

Bioconductor version: 3.17

This package is devoted to analyzing high-throughput data (e.g. gene expression microarray, DNA methylation microarray, RNA-seq) from complex tissues. Current functionalities include 1. detect cell-type specific or cross-cell type differential signals 2. tree-based differential analysis 3. improve variable selection in reference-free deconvolution 4. partial reference-free deconvolution with prior knowledge.

Author: Ziyi Li and Weiwei Zhang and Luxiao Chen and Hao Wu

Maintainer: Ziyi Li <zli16 at>

Citation (from within R, enter citation("TOAST")):


To install this package, start R (version "4.3") and enter:

if (!require("BiocManager", quietly = TRUE))


For older versions of R, please refer to the appropriate Bioconductor release.


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biocViews DNAMethylation, DifferentialExpression, DifferentialMethylation, Epigenetics, GeneExpression, GeneTarget, MethylationArray, Microarray, Software
Version 1.14.0
In Bioconductor since BioC 3.10 (R-3.6) (4 years)
License GPL-2
Depends R (>= 3.6), EpiDISH, limma, nnls, quadprog
Imports stats, methods, SummarizedExperiment, corpcor, doParallel, parallel, ggplot2, tidyr, GGally
Suggests BiocStyle, knitr, rmarkdown, gplots, matrixStats, Matrix
Depends On Me
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