1 Context

Flow injection analysis (FIA) is becoming more and more used in the context of high-throughput profiling, because of an increased resolution of mass spectrometers (HRMS). The data produced however are complex and affected by matrix effect which makes their processing difficult. The proFIA bioconductor package provides the first workflow to process FIA-HRMS raw data and generate the peak table. By taking into account the high resolution and the information of matrix effect available from multiple scans, the algorithms are robust and provide maximum information about ions m/z and intensitie using the full capapbility of modern mass spectrometers.

2 Workflow

proFIA workflow

The first step generates the proFIAset object, which will be further processed during the workflow. The object contains initial information about the sample and the classes (when subdirectories for the raw data are present), as well as all results froom the processing (e.g., detected peaks, grouping, etc.). At each step, the data quality can be checked by graphics such as plotEICs, or plotRaw. For convenience, the 3 processing functions and methods from the workflow (proFIAset, group.FIA, and fillPeaks.FIA) have been wrapped into a single analyzeAcquisitionFIA function. The final dataMatrix can be exported, as well as the 2 supplementary tables containing the sampleMetadata and the variableMetadata.

Note that the 3 exported ‘.tsv’ files can be directly used in the Galaxy-based Workflow4metabolomics infrastructure for subsequent statistical analysis and annotation (Giacomoni et al. 2015).

3 The plasFIA data package

A real data set consisting of human plasma spiked with 40 molecules at 3 increasing concentrations was acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer with 2 replicates, in the positive ionization mode (U. Hohenester and C. Junot, LEMM laboratory, CEA, MetaboHUB). The 10 files are available in the plasFIA bioconductor data package, in the mzML format (centroid mode).

4 Hands-on

4.1 Peak detection with proFIAset

We first load the two packages containing the software and the dataset:

# loading the packages
# finding the directory of the raw files
path <- system.file(package="plasFIA", "mzML")
## [1] "plasFIA_1000_A.mzML" "plasFIA_1000_B.mzML" "plasFIA_100_A.mzML" 
## [4] "plasFIA_100_B.mzML"  "plasFIA_10_A.mzML"   "plasFIA_10_B.mzML"

The first step of the workflow is the proFIAset function which takes as input the path to the raw files. This function performs noise model building, followed by m/z strips detection and filtering. The important parameters to keep in mind are:

Note: 1. As all files need to be processed 2 times, one for noise estimation and one for model estimation, this step is the most time consuming of the workflow. 2. The ppm parameter is the most important of the workflow; the package was designed to work optimally for high-resolution data with an accuracy inferior or equal to 5 ppm.

# defining the ppm parameter adapted to the Orbitrap Fusion
ppm <- 3

# performing the first step of the workflow
plasSet <- proFIAset(path, ppm=ppm, parallel=FALSE)

The quality of peak detection can be assessed by using the plotRaw method to visualize the corresponding areas in the raw data.

# loading the spiked molecules data frame

# plotting the raw region aroung the Diphenhydramine mass signal
##    formula           names classes     mass mass_M+H
## 7 C17H21NO Diphenhydramine Benzene 255.1623 256.1696
mzrange <- c(plasMols[7,"mass_M+H"]-0.1,plasMols[7,"mass_M+H"]+0.1)
plotRaw(plasSet, type="r", sample=3, ylim=mzrange, size=0.6)

In the example above, we see that a signal at 256.195 m/z corresponding to the solvent has been correctly discarded by proFIA.

# plotting the filter Dipehnhydramine region.
plotRaw(plasSet, type="p", sample=3, ylim=mzrange, size=0.6)

Peak detection in proFIA is based on matched filtering. It therefore relies on a peak model which is tuned on the signals from the most intense ions. The plotInjectionPeaks method allows to check visually the consistency of these reconstructed filters.

# plotting the injection peak

4.2 Peak grouping with group.FIA

The second step of the workflow consists in matching the signals between the samples. The group.FIA methods uses an estimation of the density in the mass dimension. The two important parameters are:

# selecting the parameters
ppmgroup <- 1

# due to the experimental design, sample fraction was set to 0.2
fracGroup <- 0.2

# grouping
plasSet <- group.FIA(plasSet, ppm=ppmgroup, fracGroup=fracGroup)
##  647  groups have been done .

The groups may be visualized using the plotEICs function, which take as input a mass and a ppm tolerance, or an index.

# plotting the EICs of the parameters.

At this stage, it is possible to check whether a molecule (i.e., a group) has been detected in the dataset by using the findMzGroup method.

# searching for match group with 2 ppm tolerance
lMatch <- findMzGroup(plasSet,plasMols[,"mass_M+H"],tol=3)

# index of the 40 molecules which may be used with plotEICs
molFound <- data.frame(names=plasMols[,"names"],found=lMatch)
##                          names found
## 1            Acetyl-L-carnitin   145
## 2            3-Methylhistamine    20
## 3                    Panthenol   151
## 4                    Metformin    27
## 5                 Azelaic acid    NA
## 6 D-erythro-Dihydrosphingosine   288
# getting the molecules which are not detected
##    formula                           names            classes     mass
## 5  C9H16O4                    Azelaic acid Dicarboxylic Acids 188.1049
## 16 C6H10O5 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid Dicarboxylic Acids 162.0528
##    mass_M+H
## 5  189.1121
## 16 163.0601

We see that molecules 5 and 16 were not found, which is coherent with their chemical classes as they are both Dicarboxylic Acids, which ionizes in negative modes.

4.3 Peak table with makeDataMatrix

The data matrix (peak table) can be built with the makeDataMatrix method: ion intensities can be computed either as the areas of the peaks (maxo=F) which is considered to be more robust, or as the maximum intensities (maxo=T).

# building the data matrix
plasSet <- makeDataMatrix(plasSet, maxo=FALSE)

4.4 Imputation with fillPeaks.WKNN

Imputation of the data matrix is performed by using a weighted k-nearest neighbours approach. A good number for k is half the size of the smaller class. * k (numeric): number of neighbours

# since there is only 1 replicate, k is set to 1, which should not be the case in a standard experiment.
k <- 1

# imputation
plasSet <- fillPeaks.WKNN(plasSet, k=k)

Here you see a warning because doing 1-Nearest-Neighbour is a bad partice, but for purpose of demonstration and to avoid long computations, we only furnished two sample by classes, which means that 1-Nearest-Neighbour is the best option in this case.

4.5 Running the whole workflow with analyzeAcquisitionFIA

The whole workflow described previously can be run by a single call to the analyzeAcquisitionFIA function:

# selecting the parameters
ppm <- 2
ppmgroup <- 1
fracGroup <- 0.2
k <- 1

# running the whole workflow in a single step
plasSet <- analyzeAcquisitionFIA(path, ppm=ppm, ppmgroup=ppmgroup, k=k,fracGroup = fracGroup,parallel=FALSE)

4.6 Export

The processed data can be exported either as:

# Expression Set.
eset <- exportExpressionSet(plasSet)
## ExpressionSet (storageMode: lockedEnvironment)
## assayData: 647 features, 6 samples 
##   element names: exprs 
## protocolData: none
## phenoData: none
## featureData
##   featureNames: M102.0914 M104.1070 ... M599.2833 (647 total)
##   fvarLabels: mzMed scanMin ... SigSolMean (6 total)
##   fvarMetadata: labelDescription
## experimentData: use 'experimentData(object)'
## Annotation:
# Peak Table.
peakTable <- exportPeakTable(plasSet)

# 3 W4M Tables:
dataMatrix <- exportDataMatrix(plasSet)
sampleMetadata <- exportSampleMetadata(plasSet)
variableMetadata <- exportVariableMetadata(plasSet)

4.7 Examples of downstream statistical analyzes

Univariate and multivariate analyzes can be applied to the processed peak table. As an example, we perform a modeling of the spiking dilution with Orthogonal Partial Least Squares, by using the ropls bioconductor package. This allows us to illustrate the efficiency of the matrix effect indicator.

# getting the concentrations of the spiked compounds (log10 scale)
vconc <- log10(plasSamples[,"concentration_ng_ml"])
# building the OPLS model
plasSet.opls <- opls(dataMatrix, vconc, predI = 1, orthoI = NA, log10L = TRUE, crossvalI=5)
## 6 samples x 647 variables and 1 response
## standard scaling of predictors and response(s)
##       R2X(cum) R2Y(cum) Q2(cum)  RMSEE pre ort pR2Y  pQ2
## Total     0.82    0.999   0.946 0.0283   1   1 0.05 0.05

We observe that the model significantly explains the majority of the response variance (Q2Y > 0.94, pQ2Y < 5%). The score plot and the observation diagnostic do not evidence any outlier sample (not shown). As expected, the concentration of the samples increases with the predictive scores. Furthermore, the matrix effect contributes to the orthogonal component: this can be observed by plotting the predictive and orthogonal VIP values, and coloring according to the matrix effect metric (inversely proportional to the ‘corMean’ quality metric of the peak):

# matrix effec metric
MEmetricVn <- 1 - variableMetadata[, "corMean"]
nnaVl <- !
MEmetricVn <- MEmetricVn[nnaVl]
ordVi <- order(MEmetricVn)
MEmetricVn <- MEmetricVn[ordVi]

# predictive and orthogonal VIP
vipVn <- getVipVn(plasSet.opls)[nnaVl][ordVi]
orthoVipVn <- getVipVn(plasSet.opls, orthoL = TRUE)[nnaVl][ordVi]

# plot
colVc <- rev(rainbow(sum(nnaVl), end = 4/6))
plot(vipVn, orthoVipVn, pch = 16, col = colVc,
     xlab = "VIP_pred", ylab = "VIP_ortho", main = "VIP_ortho vs VIP_pred",lwd=3)

# adding black circles around spiked compounds
matchVl <- (1:nrow(variableMetadata) %in% lMatch[!])[nnaVl][ordVi]
points(vipVn[matchVl], orthoVipVn[matchVl], cex=1.2,pch=1,col="black",lwd=2)
legend("topright", legend = c(paste0(c("ME max: ", "ME min: "), round(rev(range(MEmetricVn)), 2)),"Spiked molecules"), pch=c(16,16,1),col = c(rev(colVc[c(1, length(colVc))]),1))

We see that high predictive VIP values correspond to low matrix effect (which is in particular the case for the spiked molecules; the two clusters probably result from the fact that some of the spiked molecules are naturally present in plasma). In contrast, the orthogonal VIP axis correlates with the matrix effect. This illustrates the capacity of proFIA to extract relevant signal from raw data and to provide useful visualization to assess the quality of the data.

5 Session info

Here is the output of sessionInfo() on the system on which this document was compiled:

## R version 3.3.1 (2016-06-21)
## Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit)
## Running under: Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS
## locale:
##  [1] LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8       LC_NUMERIC=C              
##  [3] LC_TIME=en_US.UTF-8        LC_COLLATE=C              
##  [5] LC_MONETARY=en_US.UTF-8    LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8   
##  [7] LC_PAPER=en_US.UTF-8       LC_NAME=C                 
##  [9] LC_ADDRESS=C               LC_TELEPHONE=C            
## attached base packages:
## [1] parallel  stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods  
## [8] base     
## other attached packages:
##  [1] ropls_1.6.0         plasFIA_1.0.0       proFIA_1.0.10      
##  [4] xcms_1.50.0         Biobase_2.34.0      ProtGenerics_1.6.0 
##  [7] BiocGenerics_0.20.0 mzR_2.8.0           Rcpp_0.12.7        
## [10] BiocStyle_2.2.0    
## loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
##  [1] knitr_1.14             magrittr_1.5           MASS_7.3-45           
##  [4] splines_3.3.1          BiocParallel_1.8.0     lattice_0.20-34       
##  [7] FNN_1.1                quadprog_1.5-5         stringr_1.1.0         
## [10] plyr_1.8.4             tools_3.3.1            grid_3.3.1            
## [13] htmltools_0.3.5        multtest_2.30.0        yaml_2.1.13           
## [16] survival_2.39-5        assertthat_0.1         digest_0.6.10         
## [19] tibble_1.2             Matrix_1.2-7.1         RColorBrewer_1.1-2    
## [22] formatR_1.4            S4Vectors_0.12.0       codetools_0.2-15      
## [25] MassSpecWavelet_1.40.0 evaluate_0.10          rmarkdown_1.1         
## [28] pracma_1.9.5           stringi_1.1.2          stats4_3.3.1          
## [31] minpack.lm_1.2-0       RANN_2.5

Giacomoni, F., G. Le Corguillé, M. Monsoor, M. Landi, P. Pericard, M. Pétéra, C. Duperier, et al. 2015. “Workflow4Metabolomics: A Collaborative Research Infrastructure for Computational Metabolomics.” Bioinformatics 31 (9): 1493–5. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu813.