The evaluomeR package permits to evaluate the reliability of bioinformatic metrics by analysing the stability and goodness of the classifications of such metrics. The method takes the measurements of the metrics for the dataset and evaluates the reliability of the metrics according to the following analyses: Correlations, Stability and Goodness of classifications.
Correlations: Calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient between every pair of metrics available in order to quantify their interrelationship degree. The score is in the range [-1,1].
Stability: This analysis permits to estimate whether the clustering is meaningfully affected by small variations in the sample (Milligan and Cheng 1996). First, a clustering using the k-means algorithm is carried out. The value of K can be provided by the user. Then, the stability index is the mean of the Jaccard coefficient (Jaccard 1901) values of a number of bootstrap replicates. The values are in the range [0,1], having the following meaning:
Goodness of classifications: The goodness of the classifications are assessed by validating the clusters generated. For this purpose, we use the Silhouette width as validity index. This index computes and compares the quality of the clustering outputs found by the different metrics, thus enabling to measure the goodness of the classification for both instances and metrics. More precisely, this goodness measurement provides an assessment of how similar an instance is to other instances from the same cluster and dissimilar to the rest of clusters. The average on all the instances quantifies how the instances appropriately are clustered. Kaufman and Rousseeuw (Kaufman and Rousseeuw 2009) suggested the interpretation of the global Silhouette width score as the effectiveness of the clustering structure. The values are in the range [0,1], having the following meaning:
The installation of evaluomeR package is performed via Bioconductor:
if (!requireNamespace("BiocManager", quietly=TRUE)) install.packages("BiocManager") BiocManager::install("evaluomeR")
The package evaluomeR depends on the following CRAN packages for the calculus: cluster (Maechler et al. 2018), corrplot (Wei and Simko 2017). Moreover, this package also depends on grDevices, graphics, stats and utils from R Core (R Core Team 2018) for plotting and on the Bioconductor packages SummarizedExperiment (Morgan et al. 2018), MultiAssayExperiment (Ramos et al. 2017) for input/output data.
The input is a
SummarizedExperiment object. The assay contained in
SummarizedExperiment must follow a certain structure, see Table
1: A valid header must be specified. The first column of the
header is the ID or name of the instance of the dataset (e.g., ontology,
pathway, etc.) on which the metrics are measured. The other columns of the
header contains the names of the metrics. The rows contains the measurements
of the metrics for each instance in the dataset.
In our package we provide three different sample input data:
ontMetrics: Structural ontology metrics, 19 metrics measuring structural aspects of bio-ontologies have been analysed on two different corpora of ontologies: OBO Foundry and AgroPortal (Franco et al. 2019).
rnaMetrics: RNA quality metrics for the assessment of gene expression differences, 2 quality metrics from 16 aliquots of a unique batch of RNA Samples. The metrics are Degradation Factor (DegFact) and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) (Imbeaud et al. 2005).
bioMetrics: Metrics for biological pathways, 2 metrics that quantitative characterizations of the importance of regulation in biochemical pathway systems, including systems designed for applications in synthetic biology or metabolic engineering. The metrics are reachability and efficiency (Davis and Voit 2018).
The user shall run the
data built-in method to load evaluomeR sample input
data. This requires to provide the descriptor of the desired dataset. The
datasets availables can take the following values: “ontMetrics”, “rnaMetrics” or
library(evaluomeR) data("ontMetrics") data("rnaMetrics") data("bioMetrics")
We provide the
metricsCorrelations function to evaluate the correlations among the
metrics defined in the
library(evaluomeR) data("rnaMetrics") correlationSE <- metricsCorrelations(rnaMetrics, margins = c(4,4,12,10))
## Data loaded. ## Number of rows: 16 ## Number of columns: 3
# Access the correlation matrix via its first assay: # assay(correlationSE,1)
The calculation of the stability indices is performed by
The stability index analysis is performed by the
stability function. For
instance, running a stability analysis for the metrics of
rnaMetrics with a
100 bootstrap replicates with a k-means cluster whose
k is 2
k must be inside [2,15] range):
stabilityData <- stability(rnaMetrics, k=2, bs = 100)
stability function returns the
stabilityData object, a
ExperimentList that contains the several assays such as the stability mean or the mean, betweenss, totss, tot.swithinss and anova values from the
## ExperimentList class object of length 9: ##  stability_mean: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_partition: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_mean: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_centers: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_size: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_betweenss: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_totss: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_tot.withinss: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns ##  cluster_anova: SummarizedExperiment with 2 rows and 2 columns
The stability indices plots shown when
getImages = TRUE are generated with the values of the stability mean:
The plot represents the stability mean from each metric for a given
This mean is calculated by performing the average of every stability index
kranges [1,k] for each metric.
stabilityRange function is an iterative method of
It performs a stability analysis for a range of
k values (
For instance, analyzing the stability of
rnaMetrics in range [2,4], with
stabilityRangeData = stabilityRange(rnaMetrics, k.range=c(2,4), bs = 100)
Two kind of graphs are plotted in
stabilityRange function. The first type
(titled as “St. Indices for k=X across metrics”) shows, for every
the stability indices across the metrics. The second kind (titled as
St. Indices for metric ‘X’ in range [x,y]), shows a plot of the behaviour of
each metric across the
There are two methods to calculate the goodness of classifications:
This method plots how the metrics behave for the current
k value, according
to the average silhouette width. Also, it will plot how the clusters are
grouped for each metric (one plot per metric).
For instance, running a quality analysis for the two metrics of
qualityData = quality(rnaMetrics, k = 4)
The data of the first plot titled as “Qual. Indices for k=4 across metrics”
according to Silhouette avg. width, is stored in Avg_Silhouette_Width
column from the first assay of the
other three plots titled by their metric name display the input rows grouped
by colours for each cluster, along with their Silhouette width scores.
qualityData contains information about the clusters of each
metric: The average silhouette width per cluster, the overall average
sihouette width (taking into account all the clusters) and the number of
individuals per cluster:
qualityRange function is an iterative method that uses the same
quality for a range of values (
k.range), instead for one
k value. This methods allows to analyse the goodness of the
classifications of the metric for different values of the range.
In the next example we will keep using the
rnaMetrics dataset, and a
k.range set to [4,6].
k.range = c(4,6) qualityRangeData = qualityRange(rnaMetrics, k.range)